Manatees Move Toward Restored Endangered Species Safeguards

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Tragic Declines Highlight Need for Increased Protection

For Immediate Release—October 11, 2023
Ragan Whitlock, Center for Biological Diversity, (727) 426-3653,
Sarah Pickering, Harvard Animal Law & Policy Clinic, (617) 852-6484,
Rachel Silverstein, Miami Waterkeeper, (305) 905-0856,
Patrick Rose, Save the Manatee Club, (850) 570-1373,
Frank S. González García, (787) 674-5422,

ST. PETERSBURG, Fla.— Responding to a formal petition submitted by the Center for Biological Diversity, Harvard Animal Law & Policy Clinic, Miami Waterkeeper, Save the Manatee Club and Frank S. González García, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced today that reclassifying the West Indian manatee from threatened to endangered may be warranted.

Today’s decision, known as a 90-day finding, is the first procedural step toward providing much greater protections for the imperiled species. The Fish and Wildlife Service must now conduct a thorough review of the best available science before determining whether to increase protections under the Endangered Species Act. A final protection decision is due by Nov. 21, 2023.

“This is the right call for manatees and everyone who cares about these charming creatures,” said Ragan Whitlock, a Florida-based attorney at the Center for Biological Diversity. “I applaud the Fish and Wildlife Service for taking the next step toward increased safeguards. Manatees need every ounce of protection they can get.”

“This finding by the Fish and Wildlife Service is a crucial step in manatees’ road to recovery,” said Ben Rankin, who worked on the petition as a student with Harvard’s Animal Law & Policy Clinic and is now a legal fellow at the Center. “Scientists have documented overwhelming threats to manatees in recent years, and it’s heartening the government is taking action to respond.”

“The Service’s announcement is immensely appreciated and absolutely warranted at this time, given the extreme declines in manatee populations since 2017,” said Savannah Bergeron, a law student working at Harvard’s Animal Law & Policy Clinic. “While we are sad that manatees’ circumstances make this review necessary, we nonetheless hope that manatees will soon receive all the protections they need.”

Since the Service prematurely reduced manatee protections in 2017, the species has declined dramatically. Pollution-fueled algae blooms sparked an ongoing mortality event that has contributed to unprecedented Florida manatee mortality approaching 2,000 deaths in 2021 and 2022 combined. This two-year record represents more than 20% of all manatees in Florida. Manatee experts predict more malnourished and starving manatees with fewer births for years to come.

“We are pleased that the Fish and Wildlife Service recognizes the need to reevaluate its ill-timed decision to downlist the Florida manatee,” said Patrick Rose, an aquatic biologist and executive director of Save the Manatee Club. “There can be no doubt that the Service needs to immediately rebuild its manatee recovery program through increased staffing and funding. While the two remaining manatee recovery staff members are doing an incredible job in the face of unprecedented environmental assaults upon the manatees and their habitat, they must have more help right now to forestall this continuing emergency.”

“The positive response is a welcome sign of hope for both subspecies of the West Indian manatee, the Antillean manatee and the Florida manatee, to once again thrive and inspire future generations,” said Frank S. González García, a Puerto Rican engineer concerned with the loss of natural resources. “The moment is ripe to focus on and revert growing negative impacts that harm and jeopardize manatees’ wellbeing and their chances to recover.”

Unchecked pollution—from wastewater treatment discharges, leaking septic systems, fertilizer runoff and other sources—is fueling the collapse of the Indian River Lagoon, leading to the unprecedented mortality event. A recent study also found more than half of sampled Florida manatees are chronically exposed to glyphosate, a potent herbicide applied to sugarcane and aquatic weeds. Discharges from Lake Okeechobee containing glyphosate have also resulted in higher concentrations of glyphosate in the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie rivers.

“This is a positive first step toward protecting this iconic species and its habitat, which is also home to so many species beyond the manatee,” said Rachel Silverstein, Ph.D., executive director of Miami Waterkeeper. “Reclassifying the manatee as endangered and addressing water quality issues across the state is an imperative to all Floridians and our unique wildlife.”

Boat strikes also threaten Florida manatees. On average, more than 100 manatees are killed by boaters in Florida every year. This number is expected to increase as Florida’s population continues to expand.

In response to a petition from the Center for Biological Diversity, Florida Springs Council and Suncoast Waterkeeper, and coordination with Save the Manatee Club to develop course content, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission finalized a rule last year to increase boater awareness of manatees and other coastal wildlife through boater education. Still, not all Florida boaters are required to take the education course.

Originally listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1973, manatees have never truly recovered. The Fish and Wildlife Service announced its final rule downlisting the West Indian manatee from endangered to threatened on March 30, 2017, despite hundreds of manatees still dying each year from boat strikes, habitat loss and other causes.


The Center for Biological Diversity is a national, nonprofit conservation organization with more than 1.7 million members and online activists dedicated to the protection of endangered species and wild places.

The Brooks McCormick Jr. Animal Law & Policy Program at Harvard Law School is committed to analyzing and improving the treatment of animals by the legal system. In 2019, it launched the Animal Law & Policy Clinic to provide students with direct hands-on experience in animal advocacy on behalf of both captive animals and wildlife, including litigation, legislation, administrative practice, and policymaking.

Miami Waterkeeper is a South Florida-based non-profit. Our mission is to protect the water you love. We work to ensure swimmable, drinkable, fishable water for all, ultimately working for clean and vibrant waters and associated coastal culture for generations to come.

Save the Manatee Club is the world’s leading manatee conservation organization. It was founded in 1981 by singer/songwriter Jimmy Buffett and former Florida Governor and U.S. Senator Bob Graham with a mission to protect manatees and their aquatic habitat.

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